Unmanned aerial vehicle

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Unmanned aerial vehicle

UAVs can be remote controlled aircraft e. UAVs are currently used for a number of missions, including reconnaissance and attack roles. For the purposes of this article, and to distinguish UAVs from missiles, a UAV is defined as being capable of controlled, sustained level flight and powered by a jet or reciprocating engine.

In addition, a cruise missile can be considered to be a UAV, but is treated separately on the basis that the vehicle is the weapon.

The FAA has adopted the acronym UAS Unmanned Aircraft System to reflect the fact that these complex systems include ground stations and other elements besides the actual air vehicles.

Officially, the term 'Unmanned Aerial Vehicle' was changed to 'Unmanned Aircraft System' to reflect the fact that these complex systems include ground stations and other elements besides the actual air vehicles.

The military role of UAV is growing at unprecedented rates. Rapid advances in technology are enabling more and more capability to be placed on smaller airframes which is spurring a large increase in the number of SUAS being deployed on the battlefield.

As the capabilities grow for all types of UAV, nations continue to subsidize their research and development leading to further advances enabling them to perform a multitude of missions.

UAV no longer only perform intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ISR missions, although this still remains their predominant type. These UAV range in cost from a few thousand dollars to tens of millions of dollars, and the aircraft used in these systems range in size from a Micro Air Vehicle MAV weighing less than one pound to large aircraft weighing over 40, pounds.

UAV Types Target and decoy - providing ground and aerial gunnery a target that simulates an enemy aircraft or Unmanned aerial vehicle Reconnaissance - providing battlefield intelligence Combat - providing attack capability for high-risk missions see Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle Research and development - used to further develop UAV technologies to be integrated into field deployed UAV aircraft Civil and Commercial UAVs - UAVs specifically designed for civil and commercial applications.

Degree of Autonomy Some early UAVs are called drones because they are no more sophisticated than a simple radio controlled aircraft being controlled by a human pilot sometimes called the operator at all times.

Unmanned aerial vehicle - Wikipedia

From this perspective, most early UAVs are not autonomous at all. In fact, the field of air vehicle autonomy is a recently emerging field, whose economics is largely driven by the military to develop battle ready technology for the warfighter.

Compared to the manufacturing of UAV flight hardware, the market for autonomy technology is fairly immature and undeveloped. Because of this, autonomy has been and may continue to be the bottleneck for future UAV developments, and the overall value and rate of expansion of the future UAV market could be largely driven by advances to be made in the field of autonomy.

Autonomy technology that will become important to future UAV development falls under the following categories: Combining information from different sensors for use on board the vehicle Communications: Handling communication and coordination between multiple agents in the presence of incomplete and imperfect information Motion planning also called Path planning: Determining an optimal path for vehicle to go while meeting certain objectives and constraints, such as obstacles Trajectory Generation: Determining an optimal control maneuver to take to follow a given path or to go from one location to another Task Allocation and Scheduling: Determining the optimal distribution of tasks amongst a group of agents, with time and equipment constraints Cooperative Tactics: Formulating an optimal sequence and spatial distribution of activities between agents in order to maximize chance of success in any given mission scenario Autonomy is commonly defined as the ability to make decisions without human intervention.

To that end, the goal of autonomy is to teach machines to be "smart" and act more like humans. The keen observer may associate this with the development in the field of artificial intelligence made popular in the s and s such as expert systems, neural networks, machine learning, natural language processing, and vision.

However, the mode of technological development in the field of autonomy has mostly followed a bottom-up approach, and recent advances have been largely driven by the practitioners in the field of control science, not computer science. Similarly, autonomy has been and probably will continue to be considered an extension of the controls field.

First look at Boeing's unmanned MQ Stingray aerial tanker candidate

In the foreseeable future, however, the two fields will merge to a much greater degree, and practitioners and researchers from both disciplines will work together to spawn rapid technological development in the area.

To some extent, the ultimate goal in the development of autonomy technology is to replace the human pilot. It remains to be seen whether future developments of autonomy technology, the perception of the technology, and most importantly, the political climate surrounding the use of such technology, will limit the development and utility of autonomy for UAV applications.

UAV Endurance Because UAVs are not burdened with the physiological limitations of human pilots, they can be designed for maximized on-station times. The maximum flight duration of unmanned aerial vehicles varies widely.

Internal combustion engine aircraft endurance depends strongly on the percentage of fuel burned as a fraction of total weight the Breguet endurance equationand so is largely independent of aircraft size. Solar electric UAVs hold the potential for unlimited flight, a concept championed by the Helios Prototype, which unfortunately was destroyed in a crash.

While UAVs receive only a fraction of the amounts spent on fighter aircraft and tactical missiles, large U.The recreational use of sUAS is the operation of an unmanned aircraft for personal interests and enjoyment. For example, using a sUAS to take photographs for your own personal use would be considered recreational; using the same device to take photographs or videos for compensation or sale to another individual would be considered a commercial operation.

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system (UAS); which include a UAV, a ground-based controller, and a system of communications between the plombier-nemours.com flight of UAVs may operate with various degrees of autonomy: either under remote control by a human operator or autonomously by.

Military Drones.

Unmanned aerial vehicle

The below video explains both the present and future of science and technology behind military unmanned aerial vehicles such as the Predator and the Reaper. The Navy plans the MQ Stingray as an unmanned carrier aviation air system (UCAAS), which was formerly known as the Carrier-Based Aerial-Refueling System (CBARS).

Unmanned aerial vehicle

unmanned aerial vehicle The origins and diversification of unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, from early military models to modern consumer-level devices.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Extremely small UAVs, in some cases hand-launched, are used to extend . The following is a list of unmanned aerial vehicles developed and operated in various countries around the world.

List of unmanned aerial vehicles - Wikipedia